Data and methods

Turbulence, wind and gust measurements from weather masts located at the southern coast of Finland (Isosaari/Vaisala, Loviisa/Fortum) and at Høvsøre in northwest Denmark (Danish National Test Station for Large Wind Turbines).

Turbulence observations from research aircraft campaigns (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany).

Wind and gust observations from Finnish weather stations maintained by Finnish Meteorological Institute.

HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model).